Our Publications


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Access to Knowledge in Egypt

"Access to Knowledge in Egypt is an outstanding example of the empirical, granular, multidisciplinary study of local laws, industries and conditions required to understand how best to promote development and access to knowledge in the global South." Neil Netanel, professor of law, UCLA School of Law.

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Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Egypt

By Nagla Rizk and Hassan Azzazzy, 2016.
The authors shed light on the role of entrepreneurship and innovation in restructuring Egypt as well as their potential for promoting economic development.

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Global Censorship and Access to Knowledge: Shifting Modes, Persisting Paradigms

By Prakash Prakash, Nagla Rizk and Carlos de Souza, 2015

In a series of case studies, authors trace the metamorphosis of the different means used by governments and private corporations to control speech in the context of emerging digital publics.

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Book Chapters

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State of Open Data Book Chapter

Open Data Around the World - Middle East and North Africa. This chapter provides an overview of recent developments in the field of open data in the region, stressing the diversity of open data initiatives.

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Open Approaches to Sharing: Egypt’s Independent Music: A Realm of Sharing and Creativity

By Nagla Rizk, 2018 This chapter taps into independent music consumption and production in Egypt and explores how art can be leveraged through intellectual property (IP) strategies which are conducive to creative progress.  

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A Gendered Analysis of Ridesharing: Perspectives from Cairo, Egypt

By Nagla Rizk, Nancy Salem, and Nadine Weheba, 2018 Through a lived experience methodology, this research offers a gendered analysis of the sharing economy through the experience of ridesharing applications in Cairo.  

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CT Strategy Development: From Design to Implementation – Case of Egypt

By Nagla Rizk and Sherif Kamel, 2017 We explore the evolution of the ICT sector in Egypt, focusing on national ICT strategy development within the context of an emerging economy.

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Behind Egypt’s Communication Outage of 2011: Censorship and Economic Liberty

By Nagla Rizk, 2015 An economic perspective on the impacts of the 2011 Internet outage in Egypt.

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Media Concentration in Egypt

By Nagla Rizk, 2015 This chapter sheds light on the status of media concentration, ownership and diversity in Egypt.


Artificial Intelligence and Gender in Africa

By Nagla Rizk, August 2020

AI and Gender in Africa

Vulnerabilities Exposed: COVID-19 and Informal Livelihoods in Egypt

A Glimpse into the Sharing Economy: An Analysis of Uber Driver-Partners in Egypt

By Nagla Rizk, 2017
Based on a field survey of a sample of Uber driver-partners in Cairo, the paper offers a glimpse of ride-sharing Egypt through the eyes of the driver-partners themselves.

Revolution, Graffiti and Copyright: The Cases of Egypt and Tunisia

By Nagla Rizk, 2015
How can copyright regimes best suit the priorities of both revolutionary graffiti artists and the consumers of their art? We explore the possibilities offered by the increasingly widespread use of and access to online digital platforms.


The Fourth Industrial Revolution, Artificial Intelligence, and the Future of Work in Egypt

By: Nagla Rizk and Ayman Ismail, 2021

This study was undertaken in collaboration with the International Labour Organization with the purpose of providing insights to Egypt’s Ministry of Manpower to help develop its perspective on the challenges and opportunities for the future of work in Egypt in light of the expected impact of AI and related ICT innovations. The study draws on a review of the literature as well as perspectives from the ground received from key stakeholders and informants. It provides conclusions on how to best utilize the promise and mitigate the perils of these technologies. The recommendations consider dimensions of public policy in the areas of education and skills, public investment, and fiscal incentives, as well as other potentially relevant areas such as key private sector and civil society initiatives.

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Imagining a Future with Intelligent Machines: A Middle Eastern and North African Perspective

By Nagla Rizk, Stephen Cave, Kanta Dihal, Tom Hollanek and Nadine Weheba. 2021.

Report on the AI Narratives in the Middle East and North Africa, in partnership with the Global AI Narratives (GAIN) project. The Royal Society, London. The report co-produced by the Access to Knowledge for Development Center (A2K4D) and the University of Cambridge's Leverhulme Centre for the Future of Intelligence (CFI), maps out themes – such as colonialism, contemporary political turmoil, as well as technological determinism and gender roles – that are pivotal to the understanding of the Middle Eastern and North African conceptions of futures with intelligent machines.

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Capacity Building and Skills Development in the Solar Energy Sector in Egypt: The Case of Tiba

By Nagla Rizk, Nancy Salem and Youmna Hashem, 2018.
We detail the experience of a capacity-building initiative by Tiba Solar, an Egyptian micro-factory producing photovoltaic (PV) cells.

Efficiency Assessment of Oasis Hotel in Utilizing a Hybrid Solar Energy System

By Nagla Rizk, Nancy Salem, and Youmna Hashem, 2018
This case study investigates the economics behind the implementation of solar energy initiatives specifically in the Oasis Hotel in Marsa Allam, Egypt.

Briefing Note: Open Data Management Plan Middle East and North Africa

By Nagla Rizk et al., 2018
The open data management plan outlines important concepts relating to data management, security, storage and long-term preservation in the Middle East and North Africa.

Towards an Alternative Assessment of Innovation in Africa

By Nagla Rizk et al., 2018.
This paper argues for the need of additional dimensions to innovation which is currently under-measured by conventional metrics of innovation activities. Available here.

Behind the Number: A Review of Index Methodologies to Improve Innovation Measurement in Africa

By Islam Hassouna, 2018
The author explores the methodologies of 16 indices in innovation, information and communication technologies, economic environment, governance, and development.  
Available here.

The Maker Movement Across North Africa

By Nagham ElHoussamy and Nagla Rizk, 2018
Available here.

Civic Engagement and the Arab Networked Public Sphere: A Synthesis of Research Findings

By A2K4D and Harvard’s Berkman Center for Internet and Society, 2016
We explore observations and findings of a collaborative project undertaken by A2K4D and the Berkman Center to study the Arab networked public sphere and to better understand the role of digitally mediated communication in civic engagement.

Studying the Arab Networked Public Sphere: A Reflection on Methods

By A2K4D and Harvard’s Berkman Center for Internet and Society, 2016
This study sets out to assess the role of the networked public sphere in civil engagement and social mobilization in the Arab world and particularly Egypt and Tunisia.

The Networked Public Sphere and Civic Engagement in Post-2011 Egypt: A Local Perspective

By Nagla Rizk, Lina Attalah and Nadine Weheba, 2016
This research examines the Networked Public Sphere (NPS) and its impact on spurring political debate, mobilization, and civic engagement in Egypt four years following the 2011 uprisings.